Article 33

Effect of revocation of the Community patent

1.       A European patent application in which the Contracting States are designated and the resulting Community patent shall be deemed not to have had, as from the outset, the effects specified in this Chapter, to the extent that the patent has been revoked.

2.       Subject to the national provisions relating either to claims for compensation for damage caused by negligence or lack of good faith on the part of the proprietor of the patent, or to unjust enrichment, the retroactive effect of the revocation of the patent as a result of opposition or revocation proceedings shall not effect:


any decision on infringement which has acquired the authority of a final decision and been enforced prior to the revocation decision;


any contract concluded prior to the revocation decision, in so far as it has been performed before that decision; however, repayment, to an extent justified by the circumstances, of sums paid under the relevant contract, may be claimed on grounds of equity.

Article 34

Complementary application of national law regarding infringement

1.       The effects of a Community patent shall be governed solely by the provisions of this Convention. In other respects, infringement of a Community patent shall be governed by the national law relating to infringement of a national patent, in accordance with and subject to the provisions of the Protocol on Litigation.

2.       Paragraph 1 shall apply mutatis mutandis to a European patent application which may result in the grant of a Community patent.

Article 35

Burden of proof

1.       If the subject-matter of a Community patent is a process for obtaining a new product, the same product when produced by any other party shall, in the absence of proof to the contrary, be deemed to have been obtained by the patented process.

2.       In the adduction of proof to the contrary, the legitimate interests of the defendant in protecting his manufacturing and business secrets shall be taken into account.



Article 36

National prior right

1.       With regard to a Community patent having a date of filing or, where priority has been claimed, a date of priority later than that of a national patent application or national patent made public in a Contracting State on or after that date, the national patent application or patent shall, for that Contracting State, have the same prior right effect as a published European patent application designating that Contracting State.

2.       If, in a Contracting State, a national patent application or patent, which is unpublished by reason of the national law of that State concerning the secrecy of inventions, has a prior right effect with regard to a national patent in that State having a later date of filing, or where priority has been claimed a later date of priority, the same shall apply in that State with regard to a Community patent.

Article 37

Right based on prior use and right of personal possession

1.       Any person who, if a national patent had been granted in respect of an invention, would have had, in one of the Contracting States, a right based on prior use of that invention or a right of personal possession of that invention, shall enjoy, in that State, the same rights in respect of a Community patent for the same invention.

2.       The rights conferred by a Community patent shall not extend to acts concerning a product covered by that patent which are done within the territory of the State concerned after that product has been put on the market in that State by the person referred to in paragraph 1, in so far as the national law of that State makes provision to the same effect in respect of national patents.




Article 38

Dealing with the Community patent as a national patent

1.       Unless otherwise specified in this Convention, a Community patent as an object of property shall be dealt with in its entirety, and for the whole of the territories in which it is effective, as a national patent of the Contracting State in which, according to the Register of European Patents provided for in the European Patent Convention:


the applicant for the patent had his residence or principal place of business on the date of filing of the European patent application;


where subparagraph (a) does not apply, the applicant had a place of business on that date; or


where neither subparagraph (a) nor subparagraph (b) applies, the applicant's representative whose name is entered first in the Register of European Patents had his place of business on the date of that entry.

2.       Where subparagraphs (a), (b) and (c) of paragraph 1 do not apply, the Contracting State referred to in that paragraph shall be the Federal Republic of Germany.

3.       If two or more persons are mentioned in the Register of European Patents as joint applicants, paragraph 1 shall apply to the joint applicant first mentioned; if this is not possible, it shall apply to the joint applicant next mentioned in respect of whom it is applicable. Where paragraph 1 does not apply to any of the joint applicants, paragraph 2 shall apply.

4.       If in a Contracting State as determined by the preceding paragraphs a right in respect of a national patent is effective only after entry in the national patent register, such a right in respect of a Community patent shall be effective only after entry in the Register of Community Patents.

Article 39


1.       An assignment of a Community patent shall be made in writing and shall require the signature of the parties to the contract, except when it is a result of a judgment.

2.       Subject to Article 24 (1) a transfer shall not affect rights acquired by third parties before the date of transfer.

3.       A transfer shall, to the extent to which it is verified by the papers referred to in the Implementing Regulations, only have effect vis-ΰ-vis third parties after entry in the Register of Community Patents. Nevertheless, a transfer, before it is so entered, shall have effect vis-ΰ-vis third parties who have acquired rights after the date of the transfer but who knew of the transfer at the date on which the rights were acquired.

Article 40

Enforcement proceedings

The courts and other authorities of the Contracting State determined in accordance with Article 38 shall have exclusive jurisdiction in respect of proceedings relating to judgments or other official acts in so far as they are being enforced against Community patents.

Article 41

Bankruptcy or like proceedings

1.       Until such time as common rules for the Contracting States in this field enter into force, the only Contracting State in which a Community patent may be involved in bankruptcy or like proceedings shall be that in which such proceedings are opened first.

2.       Paragraph 1 shall apply mutatis mutandis in the case of joint proprietorship of a Community patent to the share of the joint proprietor.

Article 42

Contractual licensing

1.       A Community patent may be licensed in whole or in part for the whole or part of the territories in which it is effective. A licence may be exclusive or non-exclusive.

2.       The rights conferred by the Community patent may be invoked against a licensee who contravenes any restriction in his licence which is covered by paragraph 1.

3.       Article 39 (2) and (3) shall apply mutatis mutandis to the grant or transfer of a licence in respect of a Community patent.

Article 43

Licences of right

1.       Where the proprietor of a Community patent files a written statement with the European Patent Office that he is prepared to allow any person to use the invention as a licensee in return for appropriate compensation, the renewal fees for the Community patent which fall due after receipt of the statement shall be reduced; the amount of the reduction shall be fixed in the rules relating to fees. Where there is a complete change of proprietorship of the patent as a result of legal proceedings under Article 23, the statement shall be deemed withdrawn upon the entry of the name of the person entitled to the patent in the Register of Community Patents.

2.       The statement may be withdrawn at any time upon written notification to this effect to the European Patent Office, provided that no-one has informed the proprietor of the patent of his intention to use the invention. Such withdrawal shall take effect from the date of its notification. The amount by which the renewal fees were reduced shall be paid within one month after withdrawal; Article 48 (2) shall apply, but the six-month period shall start upon expiry of the above period.

3.       The statement may not be filed while an exclusive licence is recorded in the Register of Community Patents or a request for the recording of such a licence is before the European Patent Office.

4.       On the basis of the statement, any person shall be entitled to use the invention as a licensee under the conditions laid down in the Implementing Regulations. A licence so obtained shall, for the purposes of this Convention, be treated as a contractual licence.

5.       On written request by one of the parties, a Revocation Division shall determine the appropriate compensation or review it if circumstances have arisen or become known which render the compensation determined obviously inappropriate. The provisions governing revocation proceedings shall apply mutatis mutandis, unless they are inapplicable as a result of the particular nature of revocation proceedings. The request shall not be deemed to have been made until such time as an administrative fee has been paid.

6.       No request for recording an exclusive licence in the Register of Community Patents shall be admissible after the statement has been filed, unless it is withdrawn or deemed withdrawn.

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